Sugar - C Lead Sheet - BC
Global warming and climate change are increasing areas of concern and interest. What is the effect of diet on the environment? The results of the study may surprise you—if everyone actually followed the national eating guidelines, our environmental footprint would decrease! There has been an increasing awareness about how much sugar we consume. Can we trust our national guidelines to lead us towards a low-sugar pattern of eating?
The results of a research study on sugar were published in the Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research in The results? Vegetables and Fruit. Grain Products. Milk and Alternatives. Meat and Alternatives. The top reasons people eat what they do is because:. Should you eat goji berries in your cereal and smoothies in the morning because they are really high in antioxidants?
Ask yourself these two questions:. For me, the answer to both those questions is no.
What Diet Should You Follow in 12222?
I often include local frozen blueberries in my smoothies and my oatmeal. Do blueberries also have the health benefits touted by goji berry marketers fibre, vitamin C, disease-fighting phytochemicals, low glycemic index? You bet.
Do I really enjoy them? We are creatures of habit so it takes a long time to carve out a sustainable change in our routine.
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Keywords : contour banks, hydraulic, hydrologic, soil erosion, USLE, waterways. Soil conservation is defined as the prevention and reduction of the amount of soil lost through erosion Sustainet, The purpose of soil conservation is to ensure that the rate of soil formation is not exceeded by the rate of soil loss Morgan, , and it ensures increases in the amount of water seeping into the soil, thereby slowing down and reducing the amount of water running off Sustainet, Soil is the most important resource on which agriculture is based.
Thus, the proper management of soil is vital to ensuring long-term sustainability of agricultural productivity. According to Morgan , soil erosion control is dependent on the selection of appropriate strategies for soil conservation, which in turn requires a thorough understanding of the processes and mechanics of erosion.
Many soil conservation practices exist and they include mechanical structures e. It is recommended that all approaches to soil conservation, i. Erosion is the process by which soil particles are detached and transported by erosive agents Ellison, Erosion of soil is a serious problem that emanates from a combination of agricultural intensification, soil degradation and intense rainstorms Amore et al. Soil is functionally a non-renewable resource and while topsoil develops over centuries, the world's growing human population has actively depleted the resource over decades Cohen et al.
According to Cogo et al. Shabani et al. According to Lewis and Nyakatawa et al. This reduces soil fertility, thereby resulting in land degradation and environmental problems Sutherst and Bourne, The average predicted soil erosion rate in South Africa based on the general pattern of relative differences is Similarly, Australia has an average soil erosion rate of 4. The USA has an average soil erosion rate of However, the concept of an average erosion rate on a continental scale is illogical because of temporal and spatial variability in erosion rates Boardman, Unsustainable soil loss from a field results in a reduction in the capacity of the field to sustain crop yield Russell, b.
Research on soil erosion only started in in the USA, which has continued to lead the world in this field Matthee and Van Schalkwyk, According to Haylett , research to determine the effects of soil cover on runoff and erosion was started in in South Africa. Many studies have since then tried to estimate the historical and current soil and subsequent soil water-holding capacity losses in the country due to soil erosion Matthee and Van Schalkwyk, For example, Platford conducted research focusing on soil and water losses from sugarcane fields in South Africa to produce recommendations for protective practices.
Various studies in the area of soil and water losses in South Africa are also documented in literature e.
Schulze and Arnold, ; McPhee et al. According to Platford , sugarcane in South Africa is regularly grown in adverse climatic and topographic conditions and on a range of soils. Soils in sugarcane growing areas are predominantly granular, leached and are characterised by high rates of erosion after the removal of the natural vegetation. Protection of cropped land in areas experiencing high rainfall has traditionally been provided by water-carrying terrace banks built across the hillside at gentle slopes, but sugarcane is not always grown on the relatively gentle slopes for which this control system was designed Platford, Therefore, strip planting, rotational crops, reduced tillage and other management practices which provide sufficient protection should be used in place of, or in addition to, terrace banks.
SASA developed guidelines and norms for the design of land-use plans in the sugar industry, which includes soil conservation structures e. The nomograph included for the design of soil and water conservation structures as shown in Fig. The USLE is a model widely used in the estimation of soil erosion and supporting soil conservation measures Song et al. The sugar industry design nomograph does not Smithers, :. It is not clear as to why an unsustainable soil loss was used by Platford , but it is suspected that it was considered more economic to implement wider spaced structures which result from design rules with the higher acceptable loss.
The main aim of this article is to review the design norms for soil and water conservation structures in the South African sugar industry, compare and contrast the norms with national norms and international practices and to identify research gaps required to update the current design norms. Sugarcane production systems in South Africa involve activities ranging from land preparation to the transportation of the harvested crop to the mill SASRI, A typical production cycle lasts for about 10 years which is the time frame that allows a farmer to maintain the economic viability of sugarcane Platford, ; SASA, ; SASRI, The agronomic practices which constitute production systems in the sugar industry include land preparation, planting, weed, pest and disease control, and harvesting of sugarcane SASA, According to Meyer , the goal of land preparation is to produce a tilth which results in good bud germination and subsequent root development of the new crop.
Land preparation includes conventional tillage and minimum tillage practices. On the other hand, conventional tillage is acceptable on slopes with smaller gradients as long as ploughing is conducted across the slope and not up and down the slope SASA, Planting of sugarcane can be done either by hand manually or mechanically Meyer, SASEX advocated for sugarcane strip planting and harvesting across all steep slopes other than short run slopes which are in, and adjacent to, valley bottoms.
However, where strip planting is not practiced, dimensions and location of conservation structures have been adjusted in conformity with the SASA nomograph.
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According to SASA and SASRI , the strip widths at right angles to the contour should not exceed thrice the maximum distance between contour banks as long as the alternate strips have a difference in age which is not less than 6 months. Weed, pest and disease control.
Weed control is achieved either by mechanical means or via spraying of chemicals while pest and disease control is achieved through manual and mechanical application of chemicals. Both conventional tillage and conservation tillage practices are vital in the control of weeds but it is conservation tillage which ensures soil and water conservation through maintaining as much crop residue as possible on the soil surface Russell, a. The crop residues reduce the impact of raindrop splash on the soil surface, reduce the velocity of surface runoff and protect the soils from erosion.
Crop rotation is a practice which is required for the control of pests and diseases Sustainet, According to SASRI , land should be used in accordance with a crop rotation system so as to promote addition of organic matter to soils, soil fertility, reduction of pests and diseases, and erosion control. Crop rotation is achieved through growing secondary crops that enhance soil health. Generally, after 5 to 6 harvests, sugarcane yield might have been decreased significantly thus calling for rejuvenation of the field Zuurbier and Van de Vooren, Rejuvenation of a sugarcane field is usually performed by planting an annual leguminous food crop.
The legumes improve soil quality, prevent soil erosion and contribute to food production Zuurbier and Van de Vooren, Harvesting of sugarcane should be planned so as to minimise negative environmental impacts, and equipment having the least impact on the environment should be used SASA, The burning of sugarcane prior to harvesting is a widespread practice in South Africa and the main reason is to eliminate excess residue so as to improve harvesting, handling and milling of the cane SASRI, According to SASRI , accidental and runaway fires are common occurrences and often spread over entire hillsides, thereby exposing the land to potential erosion.
Serious erosion can be experienced if heavy rains follow soon after burning, thus making it necessary to leave the tops and residues scattered over the soil surface so as to protect the soil and reduce the velocity of runoff SASRI, In addition, codes of practice on burning which provide acceptable ways of complying with legislation and minimising negative impacts on the environment while aiding crop production are in place SASRI, Soil and water conservation and yield improvement are some of the benefits associated with green cane harvesting, among others SASRI, SASA and SASRI advocate for mulching wherever possible for maximum conservation of soil and water, particularly on steep slopes and erodible soils.
In summary, the agronomic practices in the sugarcane production systems discussed above play a role in soil and water conservation and they should be considered when updating design norms for soil and water conservation structures in the sugar industry. Design norms are guidelines applied in the design of structures. The commonly used structures in soil and water conservation are waterways and contour banks and their designs entail both hydrologic and hydraulic designs.
Hydrologic design entails estimation of design floods which is important in the sizing of hydraulic structures and thus to quantify and limit the risk of failure of the structures Reinders et al. The risk of failure is related to the return period and it is quantified as a probability of exceedance, as shown in Eq. ASABE recommended a yr return period, h storm for the design of contour banks but stresses the need for the selection of larger design storms appropriate to the level of risk of failure. A yr return period is also recommended for the design of soil conservation structures in Australia and in situations where failure would threaten public safety or lead to severe damage, larger return periods are recommended Carey et al.
Matthee and Van Schalkwyk recommended that soil conservation structures should be designed so as to cope with year return period floods while SASA specifies a yr return period for the design of soil and water conservation structures in the South African sugar industry. According to Russell , the Soil Conservation Service SCS method SCS, of runoff estimation should be used for the design of structures on cultivated land while the Rational Method Kuichling, is to be used for storage dam and gulley stabilization design in natural catchments.
The SCS method Eq. Schmidt et al. The peak discharge estimated using the SCS-SA approach depends on storm flow depth, catchment area, catchment lag time, and the effective storm duration shown in Eq. The Rational Method is extensively used worldwide for both small rural and urban catchments Alexander, Parak and Pegram reported that the Rational Method is the most widely used method for estimating design peak discharges from rainfall events and is easy to understand and simple to use.
The method, which only computes flood peaks, is sensitive to the input design rainfall intensity and the runoff coefficient, whose selection is based on the experience of the user Smithers, The algorithm for the Rational Method is shown in Eq. The hydraulic design of soil and water conservation structures entails selecting the placement, size, shape and slope of physical protection works, namely contour banks and waterways. According to SASA , contour banks are defined as structures designed hydraulically and placed in the field to protect the land situated immediately below.
Design of contour banks involves the selection of vertical and horizontal spacing between contour banks, and the sizing of the contour to safely convey the design discharge Reinders et al. Two methods, namely, vertical interval method and sustainable soil loss method, are employed in the determination of contour bank spacing ASABE, The vertical interval method is an empirical method developed by the SCS in the s and is not soil, cropping system, or rainfall specific ASABE, The existing land slope is the slope used in the equation and thus the method does not account for the effect of terrace shape on the constructed land slope.
Frequently the maximum terrace spacing computed by use of the vertical interval method is more conservative than that obtained using the sustainable soil loss method ASABE, Candidate master regulators of this network were point out.
The photosynthetic carbon fixation and the subsequent synthesis of polysaccharides such a starch and cellulose are necessary to plant development and growth, but they also play a vital role for life on earth. Biosynthesis, transport, and storage of carbohydrates depend on plant physiology but also on environmental conditions, and the capacity of plants to sense and respond to sugars is a pivotal element between internal and external signals Koch, ; Rolland et al. It is expected that plant growth is driven by carbohydrates availability, but the existence of more complex regulatory mechanisms coordinating carbon supply and use have been proposed Smith and Stitt, It has been suggested that starch synthesis and degradation is a crucial element in the balance between resource availability and development in leaves Sulpice et al.
Starch is a primary product of photosynthesis, and the most important storage-carbohydrate in plants Buleon et al. Although the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to starch metabolism in leaves has been strongly improved in the last decade, the integration of the starch biosynthetic pathway with the whole plant carbon metabolism has not been fully clarified Kotting et al. However, evidence showing the articulation of starch metabolism with other primary pathways has been shown Mentzen et al.
During the last few years, the study of plant gene networks has become possible thanks to the huge available amount of data generated by Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutants and from plants undergoing multiple physiological conditions e. Network representation of transcriptomic data can provide evidence of gene-to-gene relationships.
Network analysis may uncover groups modules of functionally related genes and thus, can yield a systematic understanding of plant responses.